Improved energy efficient hierarchical cluster tree based routing to prolong network lifetime

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Venkatesh Prasad B S , et. al.


Wireless sensor networks (WSN) play a key role in enabling wireless communication technology among several nodes to remotely communicate and exchange information. WSN consists of tiny sensor nodes equipped with battery, scattered in an area to gather information around an environment and send to data collection node known as sink or base station (BS). WSN have been widely used in various applications like agriculture, fire detection, health care and military and has become imperative necessity for future revolutionary area like UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles), IoT (Internet of things) and smart cities which employs large scale sensor nodes. However sensor nodes are limited to battery, memory, low computational power, resource and bandwidth. Continues sensing of events, makes node to drain its battery faster and goes dead fast. For resource constrained WSN, hierarchical cluster based approaches are considered as energy efficient and improves network performance for large scale WSN. Minimizing energy consumption and extending network lifetime are major challenging issues of WSN, clustering methods with optimized routing have offered solution to optimize energy utilization. To balance energy consumption and improve network lifetime many existing hierarchical clustering approaches have been proposed, however existing method does not consider rotation of cluster head (CH) and considers cluster head selection based on residual energy and distance parameter. In this paper we propose an improved energy efficient cluster tree (IEECT) based routing to improve energy efficiency of hierarchical cluster. IEECT considers modification of existing LEACH (Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) protocol to improved energy efficient LEACH by considering energy parameters like residual node energy and average network energy. IEECT accounts optimal number of cluster head (CH) and selection of CH is done using threshold value among sensor nodes. Proposed IEECT combines tree based routing and data aggregation scheme to maintain desirable quality of service. Simulation experiments are carried out by using network simulator. Performance of IEECT is evaluated in terms of PDR, delay, energy consumption, network lifetime and overhead.        

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